Originally printed in Lêgerîn Situation No 1. The Lêgerîn mission assertion is “Difusión de la ideología de la revolución en Rojava, y de las concepts de Rêber Apo, el Confederalismo Democrático.” The unique article and journal may be seen right here. They’re additionally accessible in Spanish, Portuguese, and French.
The context in Latin America and Africa could be very related, in lots of respects, to that of the Center East. These similarities exist due to the inhuman exploitation of the European nation-states of their interval of colonialist and imperialist enlargement. Because the starting of the “discovery” of the African and American continents, the unique peoples have been affected by the exterior intervention of capitalist states and their financial pursuits, motivated by monopoly aspirations. Due to the method of extermination and assimilation carried out in each continents, the implications of this horrible interval may be seen as much as right this moment.
Not surprisingly, from the start of the occupation of the territory, the natives supplied nice resistance to the “civilized” mentality and to their capitalist understanding of “progress”. This was one of many explanation why the colonizers dedicated a number of genocides (bodily and cultural). The cultures discovered within the territory had been numerous, from the state constructions of the Aztec Empire in what’s now Mexico to the Kingdom of Benin in what’s now Nigeria. Dozens of already organized states had been subjected to colonial domination by way of pressure, extermination and genocide. Amongst them, the Luba Empire, the Lunda Empire, the Kingdom of Cazembe, the Kingdom of Congo, the Inca and the Mayan
Civilization. Along with the nice empires that existed (some with greater than 4 thousand years of existence), 1000’s of tribes lived in these territories and arranged themselves in numerous methods.
Nevertheless, it’s common to seek out tribes that lived in widespread, as is the case in Brazil. With about 300 completely different ethnic teams and 270 completely different languages, many of the tribes survived from subsistence agriculture, there was no centralized type of energy, the economic system was based mostly on change and equitable division of surplus, faith was not dogmatic or monotheistic, the training of youngsters was the duty of the group, no time was not linear and animism was widespread to all tribes. Within the African continent, tribal group was the widespread approach of managing the
present societies and plenty of had been topic to the nice empires of the area, (already talked about
above) similar to the method of domination of the empires that existed within the Center East area all through historical past (Sumerian, Babylonian, Assyrian, Persian, Ottoman, and many others.). Nevertheless, multiculturalism and the range of those tribes and ethnicities have remained current inside these societies and plenty of nonetheless survive the method of assimilation right this moment. It’s not troublesome to seek out similarities between these types of group and the societies that inhabited Mesopotamia within the Neolithic interval, the distinction is that as an alternative of a city-state being the colonizer, within the case of Africa and Latin America, the nation-states had been the colonizers with their capitalist and ultra-nationalist mentality.
The Similarities Between These
Areas and Kurdistan
Though they succeeded in gaining their independence from the colonizing states, some earlier than others, they now face numerous issues on each continents. Amongst them, excessive poverty, social inequality, financial dependence, violence, neo-colonialism, and many others. Though these processes occurred in numerous types and methods, we will discover some similarities between them and attempt to perceive why these societies are within the present state of affairs. One of many factors we will analyses is the formation of the nation states as their answer for nationwide liberation, right here, we will observe a parallelism between the Kurdish query and Rêber Apo’s understanding of the nation state. Within the early days of the get together and the Kurdish liberation motion, the concept of making a Kurdish state to defend the pursuits of the Kurdish individuals was seen as a risk of acquiring respectable residing circumstances. Because the Kurdish individuals have been denied their very own rights of existence. Their language, tradition, custom, social group, had been forbidden. They had been criminalized for being who they’re, in their very own territory – divided between Turkey, Syria, Iraq and Iran. This reminds us of a Zapatista saying: “To be seen, we cowl our faces; to be named, we deny them our names; we wager on the current, in order that we’ve a future? and to reside, we die. As soon as once more, the similarities of the inhumane systematic type of capitalism grew to become evident. In Kurdistan or Chiapas, this technique enslaves and kills all the pieces and everybody who dares to assume in another way.
Nevertheless, over time and a means of deep evaluation, by critics and self-critics, the concept of the nation-state was
reconsidered. The state is incapable of providing life in a free society, as soon as its formation is instantly associated to a course of
of assimilation, authoritarianism, subjugation of variety, nationalism and particularly patriarchy. As such, it’s the primary perpetrator of the mentality that enslaves and exploits individuals. Even some independence actions that had a progressive best, akin to Haiti in 1804 (it was the primary Latin American nation to declare independence and the primary to finish slavery), couldn’t escape imperialist exploitation and submitted to the exterior pursuits of different states in order that it might be acknowledged by different states and exist as a nation-state.
Past the Nation-State
It’s not doable to be free whereas being organized as a nation state, it’s obligatory to construct an alternative choice to the state and its mentality. This various is the reorganization of society across the political and ethical society (ahlaq), this may be noticed initially within the primitive socialism within the societies of the neolithic interval. From this evaluation, democratic confederalism emerges, the Rebêr Apo paradigm expressed and applied by the Kurdistan liberation motion in all its dimensions, from the Bakur Mountains to the Rojava revolution. This is the reason these democratic concepts of the get together can contribute to the development of society in Latin America and Africa and develop a really free area. Much more so as a result of these are societies wealthy in multicultural variety, with communal origins and a powerful heritage of resistance, in addition to Kurdish society. Because the reorganization of the get together across the new paradigm, it isn’t troublesome to watch and see these similarities between Kurds, Latinos and Africans. All of them went by way of an especially violent colonization course of, that they had (and nonetheless have) their territories occupied and exploited, they’ve severe issues associated to the patriarchal mentality. Nevertheless, Rêber Apo’s concepts are usually not so well-known in Latin America and Africa, because of the small or non-existent Kurdish group in these locations. It’s essential that we attempt to join with the prevailing struggles in these societies and develop collectively the alternate options to reside free from the oppression and slavery of the capitalist system. Each continents have many tales of resistance, anti-colonial actions, guerrillas who fought for nationwide liberation and authentic societies that also resist and attempt to hold their beliefs, lifestyle and type of group alive.
These concepts will surely be welcomed by the Latin and African individuals, as ladies’s liberation, ecology and freedom are points which might be already being addressed by present actions. A straightforward instance to notice is the rising empowerment of feminist actions on each continents, as may be seen in Chile, Mexico, Argentina, South Africa, and many others. Nevertheless, as a lot as they will mobilize thousands and thousands of girls within the streets and have achieved some enhancements all through historical past, they nonetheless discover themselves chained to the patriarchal system and sadly see dozens of girls being killed day by day by this disgusting system. It’s not by likelihood that these actions know the Kurdish Girls’s Motion properly, and little doubt, from this consciousness, extra fruitful relations of unity, mutual support, bases of worldwide solidarity, and many others. might be created. These can be the primary steps in the direction of main a unified battle in opposition to the patriarchal state and internationalizing the ladies’s revolution that’s going down within the Kurdish motion.
The issues brought on by the capitalist mentality can simply be noticed, for instance, the destruction of the setting and the worldwide climatic penalties generated by unrestrained exploitation within the title of so-called “progress”. The identical time period and the identical mentality that the colonizers had within the sixteenth century… with the passage of time, the phrases might change, however the apply and the mentality is often the identical till right this moment.
The International Revolt of ’68 and the Youth Spirit
As in Europe, the entrance line of the struggles impressed by ‘68 in Latin America and Africa had been younger individuals. Bending their youthful spirit, their will to alter, their goals of revolution and hope, they had been the guts of this second and the primary ones concerned about constructing another. However they lacked an understanding of the mentality of the capitalist system as a complete, past mercantilism. So though that they had well-intentioned actions and attitudes, it was not sufficient to interrupt the system’s cycle and create an actual various. This was the “mistake” the get together understood, in order that we might be taught from it and the youth might redirect all their energy of spirit to revolution. At many factors, the youth occupied a vital area within the battle in opposition to the capitalist system. Amongst them, the latest one was often called the College students’ Spring, the place 1000’s of colleges had been occupied by college students from Chile, Brazil, Argentina, South Africa, Angola and another nations, preventing for higher academic circumstances, a curricular desk centered on their human and social capacities, which is completely reverse to the business logic established in our every day life. The youthful spirit might be observed in each motion carried out by the scholars, from the reforms made within the deserted public faculties of the State to the bodily resistance within the streets through the mobilizations the place the police used all their gadgets to assault them. This spirit is current within the youth to this point. It’s not by likelihood that those that initiated this gigantic and exquisite mobilization in Chile, and who’ve been occupying the “streets” for the final months till now, had been the youth (most of them had been ladies with 15 to 18 years previous). As soon as once more it’s evident that there’s a want for long-term proposals and tasks, in addition to a paradigm, in any other case these actions could have the identical finish as these of ‘68. As soon as once more, we will clearly see the flames of hope. The hope of constructing a real democratic various.
Since 2008, with the extended monetary crises, all of the relationships already established between capitalism, liberalism, sexism and conservatism have deepened and grow to be polarized. Consequently, there’s a extra pressing want to grasp the battle in a deeper approach and to be taught from different experiences, particularly the theories and practices of the Kurdish motion within the final 42 years, influenced by 1000’s of years of historic resistance in protection of free and communal society.
United Line for the Democratic Nation
Democratic confederalism presents a strategy to set up these societies, respecting their traits and
multiculturalism . It’s more and more clear that Rêber Apo’s concepts, though developed from Kurdish society, may be utilized to different societies due to their universalism, their recognition of the existence of variations in society, the significance of girls’s liberation (with out it, it’s unimaginable to beat the present state and system), the negation of dogmatic concepts and the creation of a revolutionary persona centered on its morals and ethics, a method of visualizing the veracity of that is, for instance, the participation of internationalist hevals (associates) within the get together and the change of experiences this creates inside the get together. This is among the lovely faces of the motion, the way in which everybody has an area and a voice inside the get together, within the battle for human freedom. The pure traits of the Latin and African individuals, akin to the enjoyment of the individuals, the comradeship, the celebrational of life and an inside flame that requires a change in society, can be greater than welcomed by Rebêr Apo’s understanding and would complement with extra colours, the rainbow that’s the Kurdish battle. Individuals from all continents and from all corners of the worldwide earth working collectively, communally, to construct an actual various to the capitalist system.